business school, News

“Students Prefer Larger Postschool Wages But Dislike Studying”

That’s how two Wharton professors, Daniel Gottlieb and Kent Smetters, model their students in a recent paper that tries to explain why so many business schools have policies – typically adopted by student vote – that prevent students from disclosing their grades to employers. Seems reasonable!

We construct a model with students, schools, and employers. Students prefer larger postschool wages but dislike studying. Schools are heterogenous in their selectivity (reputation). Under disclosure, employers can observe both a student’s grades and the school’s selectivity; under non-disclosure, an employer can only observe the partial signal of the school’s selectivity.

That model leads to a bunch of equations (no charts, sorry) with conclusions that again seem pretty reasonable. The driving force for preferring a non-disclosure policy turns out to be that mean post-graduation pay has to be higher than median pay – and the authors think that this is likely at a selective school where the top students can be very valuable, but less likely for a less-selective school where everyone is clustered closer to average ability. If the average value of a Wharton student is higher than value of the average Wharton student, then making it hard for employers to figure out who is actually valuable will let everyone get paid for the optionality:

We show that students at elite schools are the most likely to adopt a non-disclosure policy, subsequently reducing their effort. Intuitively, a non-disclosure policy allows the median voter to study less and then pool to receive the expected (mean) wage, which might be more valuable to her than receiving the median wage with effort. For plausible wage distributions, the desire to pool becomes more valuable at more selective schools.

So you don’t work hard and get outsized pay when you graduate. Someone once described this system of education as being like a Happy Meal – it’s not very nutritious, but it tastes good, and there’s a prize at the end. Which is basically a good thing for Wharton students.

You know who it is not a good thing for? Wharton professors who are sick of their lazy students coming to class without having done the reading. Gottlieb and Smetters are not thrilled that everyone’s more or less pass-failing their classes:

At Wharton, the amount of time spent on academics fell by 22% in the first four years after grade non-disclosure was implemented. Moreover, the pattern of courses waved by students was not affected by the introduction of grade nondisclosure. Therefore, the idea that grade non-disclosure allows students to take more challenging courses cannot account for the trend in average studying effort among MBA students.

But they’ve got a solution, which they came up with when they noticed that only MBAs, not doctors or lawyers, tend to have nondisclosure policies. You or I might conclude that that’s because the preference for wages and dislike for studying is uniquely strong among MBAs. Being economists, however, Gottlieb and Smetters look for incentives:

Business schools are unique in that most other professional programs – including medicine, law and accounting – allow for grade disclosure. These other programs, however, also have some uniform certification (medical boards, legal bar, CPA) that is required to practice at the fullest level.

They think those two facts are related. In their model, you don’t want to exert effort to study in school – but if you’ll need to pass a certification exam then studying for class is more valuable, because it prepares you for the exam that you need to study for anyway.

So the solution is clear: create a certification program for MBAs so that they can’t practice – um – business, let’s say, without passing that exam. Gottlieb and Smetters suggest this as a way to “change the level of effort of the median student,” and conclude that “Future work could explore this issue in more detail.” I for one look forward to their future work on a certification exam for business school graduates. Maybe it could be the CFA?

Incidentally, in the news-you-can-use category for soon-to-be-recently-ex-junior-bankers, the paper lists the top 50 business schools by average GMAT score, and whether they allow grade disclosure. Slackers may want to consider Michigan, the lowest-GMAT school with nondisclosure; masochists could look into MIT Sloan, the highest-ranked school with grade disclosure.

Grade Non-Disclosure [NBER]

(hidden for your protection)
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142 Responses to ““Students Prefer Larger Postschool Wages But Dislike Studying””

  1. Ball Buster says:

    Matt, no chart!! You cut me to the bone dude, to the bone! It fucking hurts.

  2. guest says:

    *This study does not hold for current or future UBS employees

  3. bartleby says:

    Matt spent more time on this article than I spent in school, but I certainly test well! Perhaps disclosed grades could be a moving average of the student's performance on tests of all kinds divided by the number of hangovers the student has each semester multiplied by the number of teachers slept with during entire college career. This number is then compared to parent's net worth, and if the product is less than the nav of said prents, bingo! You get an A. Worked for me.

  4. Alt_EST says:

    In other ground-breaking news:

    "Protesters prefer bitching, but dislike working."

  5. Texashedge says:

    Wouldn't the individual Wharton students with good grades simply violate the policy and disclose their grades, thus making individual non-disclosure a signal of weakness (or communism)?

  6. Gottlieb & Smetters says:

    We also discovered that, at some point between matriculation and graduation, students' esteem for student lenders declined.

  7. Sir Loin says:

    Wharton & Wollensky?

  8. I've met Smetters, smart dude. I think that this would create a glut of CFA holders, much like it has MBAs, JDs, and MDs. Tired of the bubbles.

  9. guest says:

    Utter shot at Michigan. Yikes.

  10. Domestic Expat says:

    In other words, people that go to schools like Wharton have an outsized sense of entitlement…how is this news?

  11. History Major & BSD says:

    Financial institutions flew themselves into the ground recently, causing mass financial casualties globally, after hiring people with the best grades from the best schools. Analyze that.

  12. Mexi_Cant says:

    Medical Schools and the top Law Schools don't even have grades, they have pass or high-pass, how the fuck is that grade disclosure?

  13. guest says:

    breaking: occupy wall street protestors like being supported by the government, dislike working.

  14. The CFA or MBA guy says:

    So, CFA or MBA? I couldn't get through the second paragraph before nodding off.

  15. Ooooh Yeah! says:

    Wharton is a feeder school for UBS MD street racers.

  16. jumbo says:

    The theory that law students study harder in law school because they have to pass the bar exam to practice is incorrect. Did these guys even interview law students? An entering law student could coast relatively stress-free and learn everything needed for the bar exam by taking BARBRI the two months between graduation and the bar exam.

    Law students tend to study hard their first year because grades are one of only a couple factors considered by law firms when those students interview for summer associate jobs at the start of 2L year. Once they have that summer associate position they're basically assured a post-bar position unless they egregiously underachieve or MBAs manage to wreck the global economy.

    Law students study hard 2L and 3L (sometimes) because the most prestigious jobs aren't law firm associate jobs, they're federal clerkships (which come with the promise of lucrative post-clerkship bonuses at the top law firms and future perches at the top of academia and government). Those jobs aren't doled out until the start of 3L year, so even the top students tend to work hard until they have a clerkship in hand.

  17. guest says:

    This is why important elections should be decided by the mean vote instead of the median.
    – another former Lehman quant

  18. ACDC says:

    True class warfare. Was 2008 better than 1998 or 1988? WTF.

  19. SloanIE says:

    current masochist>>>

  20. Jeff says:

    If the employer want this information, they should demand a transcript and provide the school release form to get it from the students. Life/health insurance providers have been doing this for a long time to get around HIPAA for psychiatric and chemical treatment.

  21. asds says:

    yeah, the finally cracked the code, game's over, everyone loses

  22. WhartonIsOk says:

    This study is fine for what it is, but nondisclosure doesn't mean business school students are incapable of being effective managers in their fields with or without studying hard. Per a Stanford study, the biggest predictor of success is your level of extroversion, not your GPA.

  23. LRA says:

    As a current student at this institution, grade disclosure or not, there is no shortage of work assigned. Even if you are gunning for that coveted 11th percentile spot, the number of type-As raising that stupid bar/throwing the curve makes the window for just-getting-by almost impossible to price. Moreover, the sheer volume of work makes it impossible to fully prepare for every class. Seriously. I don't think I've ever worked so hard, and I'm coming from a year in a joint degree program at another grad school/typical pre-MBA working hours beforehand.

  24. caroljm36 says:

    "courses waved by students"

    Waved? Waved at? Waved bye-bye to?

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