That’s how two Wharton professors, Daniel Gottlieb and Kent Smetters, model their students in a recent paper that tries to explain why so many business schools have policies – typically adopted by student vote – that prevent students from disclosing their grades to employers. Seems reasonable!

We construct a model with students, schools, and employers. Students prefer larger postschool wages but dislike studying. Schools are heterogenous in their selectivity (reputation). Under disclosure, employers can observe both a student’s grades and the school’s selectivity; under non-disclosure, an employer can only observe the partial signal of the school’s selectivity.

That model leads to a bunch of equations (no charts, sorry) with conclusions that again seem pretty reasonable. The driving force for preferring a non-disclosure policy turns out to be that mean post-graduation pay has to be higher than median pay – and the authors think that this is likely at a selective school where the top students can be very valuable, but less likely for a less-selective school where everyone is clustered closer to average ability. If the average value of a Wharton student is higher than value of the average Wharton student, then making it hard for employers to figure out who is actually valuable will let everyone get paid for the optionality:

We show that students at elite schools are the most likely to adopt a non-disclosure policy, subsequently reducing their effort. Intuitively, a non-disclosure policy allows the median voter to study less and then pool to receive the expected (mean) wage, which might be more valuable to her than receiving the median wage with effort. For plausible wage distributions, the desire to pool becomes more valuable at more selective schools.

So you don’t work hard and get outsized pay when you graduate. Someone once described this system of education as being like a Happy Meal – it’s not very nutritious, but it tastes good, and there’s a prize at the end. Which is basically a good thing for Wharton students.

You know who it is not a good thing for? Wharton professors who are sick of their lazy students coming to class without having done the reading. Gottlieb and Smetters are not thrilled that everyone’s more or less pass-failing their classes:

At Wharton, the amount of time spent on academics fell by 22% in the first four years after grade non-disclosure was implemented. Moreover, the pattern of courses waved by students was not affected by the introduction of grade nondisclosure. Therefore, the idea that grade non-disclosure allows students to take more challenging courses cannot account for the trend in average studying effort among MBA students.

But they’ve got a solution, which they came up with when they noticed that only MBAs, not doctors or lawyers, tend to have nondisclosure policies. You or I might conclude that that’s because the preference for wages and dislike for studying is uniquely strong among MBAs. Being economists, however, Gottlieb and Smetters look for incentives:

Business schools are unique in that most other professional programs – including medicine, law and accounting – allow for grade disclosure. These other programs, however, also have some uniform certification (medical boards, legal bar, CPA) that is required to practice at the fullest level.

They think those two facts are related. In their model, you don’t want to exert effort to study in school – but if you’ll need to pass a certification exam then studying for class is more valuable, because it prepares you for the exam that you need to study for anyway.

So the solution is clear: create a certification program for MBAs so that they can’t practice – um – business, let’s say, without passing that exam. Gottlieb and Smetters suggest this as a way to “change the level of effort of the median student,” and conclude that “Future work could explore this issue in more detail.” I for one look forward to their future work on a certification exam for business school graduates. Maybe it could be the CFA?

Incidentally, in the news-you-can-use category for soon-to-be-recently-ex-junior-bankers, the paper lists the top 50 business schools by average GMAT score, and whether they allow grade disclosure. Slackers may want to consider Michigan, the lowest-GMAT school with nondisclosure; masochists could look into MIT Sloan, the highest-ranked school with grade disclosure.

Grade Non-Disclosure [NBER]

142 comments (hidden to protect delicate sensibilities)
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Comments (142)

  1. Posted by Ball Buster | October 3, 2011 at 2:01 PM

    Matt, no chart!! You cut me to the bone dude, to the bone! It fucking hurts.

  2. Posted by guest | October 3, 2011 at 2:08 PM

    *This study does not hold for current or future UBS employees

  3. Posted by bartleby | October 3, 2011 at 2:16 PM

    Matt spent more time on this article than I spent in school, but I certainly test well! Perhaps disclosed grades could be a moving average of the student's performance on tests of all kinds divided by the number of hangovers the student has each semester multiplied by the number of teachers slept with during entire college career. This number is then compared to parent's net worth, and if the product is less than the nav of said prents, bingo! You get an A. Worked for me.

  4. Posted by Alt_EST | October 3, 2011 at 2:18 PM

    In other ground-breaking news:

    "Protesters prefer bitching, but dislike working."

  5. Posted by Texashedge | October 3, 2011 at 2:20 PM

    Wouldn't the individual Wharton students with good grades simply violate the policy and disclose their grades, thus making individual non-disclosure a signal of weakness (or communism)?

  6. Posted by Gottlieb & Smetters | October 3, 2011 at 2:23 PM

    We also discovered that, at some point between matriculation and graduation, students' esteem for student lenders declined.

  7. Posted by Guest | October 3, 2011 at 2:24 PM

    This is similar to the "discovery" of gravity. It was there before someone gave it a name…

  8. Posted by Sir Loin | October 3, 2011 at 2:27 PM

    Wharton & Wollensky?

  9. Posted by Hm. | October 3, 2011 at 2:33 PM

    I matriculated in bed, but never did graduate

    -reexamining my joke motives, may need advice from the joke briefer

  10. Posted by caveat bettor | October 3, 2011 at 2:35 PM

    I've met Smetters, smart dude. I think that this would create a glut of CFA holders, much like it has MBAs, JDs, and MDs. Tired of the bubbles.

  11. Posted by guest | October 3, 2011 at 2:37 PM

    Utter shot at Michigan. Yikes.

  12. Posted by Newton | October 3, 2011 at 2:44 PM

    Hey, fuckhead!

  13. Posted by Domestic Expat | October 3, 2011 at 2:45 PM

    In other words, people that go to schools like Wharton have an outsized sense of entitlement…how is this news?

  14. Posted by B. Madoff | October 3, 2011 at 2:45 PM

    What about Michigan's legitimate years as a grad school…. you never hear about those

  15. Posted by Guest | October 3, 2011 at 2:46 PM

    stopped reading after "Matt…"

  16. Posted by TheJokeBriefer | October 3, 2011 at 2:48 PM

    Perhaps suggesting that not graduating from night school would be a nocturnal omission?

  17. Posted by NowOnePerson | October 3, 2011 at 2:51 PM

    bartleby = GoldenBoy = CurrencyTrader?

  18. Posted by History Major & BSD | October 3, 2011 at 2:53 PM

    Financial institutions flew themselves into the ground recently, causing mass financial casualties globally, after hiring people with the best grades from the best schools. Analyze that.

  19. Posted by Guest | October 3, 2011 at 3:01 PM

    Pretty sure there is a shortage of doctors?

  20. Posted by Mexi_Cant | October 3, 2011 at 3:02 PM

    Medical Schools and the top Law Schools don't even have grades, they have pass or high-pass, how the fuck is that grade disclosure?

  21. Posted by guest | October 3, 2011 at 3:03 PM

    breaking: occupy wall street protestors like being supported by the government, dislike working.

  22. Posted by TheodoreBallgamePhD | October 3, 2011 at 3:07 PM

    What is this, Brown? Its basically the Ivy League!

  23. Posted by The CFA or MBA guy | October 3, 2011 at 2:10 PM

    So, CFA or MBA? I couldn't get through the second paragraph before nodding off.

  24. Posted by bartleby | October 3, 2011 at 3:14 PM

    Bartleby= sleeps under desk, lives on ginger nut cakes.

  25. Posted by Bankster | October 3, 2011 at 3:18 PM

    They also like bank loans, dislike repaying them.

  26. Posted by early_hominid | October 3, 2011 at 3:22 PM

    Talk about class warfare

  27. Posted by Arthur | October 3, 2011 at 3:26 PM


  28. Posted by Guesty | October 3, 2011 at 3:35 PM

    Yeah, you interview with a slacker alum who rats you out for violating the code.

    -3.8 Class of 08

  29. Posted by Guest | October 3, 2011 at 3:42 PM

    What do you mean?

    Aren't bankers and back office staff supposed to make the same amount?

    – UBS MD

  30. Posted by Ooooh Yeah! | October 3, 2011 at 3:45 PM

    Wharton is a feeder school for UBS MD street racers.

  31. Posted by jumbo | October 3, 2011 at 4:30 PM

    Most of the top 10 law schools actually do have traditional grading scales. Yale, Harvard (I think), and Berkeley have high pass/pass/low pass grading systems, but the rest of the T10 and T14 have the traditional A-F scale, albeit with differences in where the curve falls and some slight variation at UChicago.

  32. Posted by jumbo | October 3, 2011 at 4:41 PM

    The theory that law students study harder in law school because they have to pass the bar exam to practice is incorrect. Did these guys even interview law students? An entering law student could coast relatively stress-free and learn everything needed for the bar exam by taking BARBRI the two months between graduation and the bar exam.

    Law students tend to study hard their first year because grades are one of only a couple factors considered by law firms when those students interview for summer associate jobs at the start of 2L year. Once they have that summer associate position they're basically assured a post-bar position unless they egregiously underachieve or MBAs manage to wreck the global economy.

    Law students study hard 2L and 3L (sometimes) because the most prestigious jobs aren't law firm associate jobs, they're federal clerkships (which come with the promise of lucrative post-clerkship bonuses at the top law firms and future perches at the top of academia and government). Those jobs aren't doled out until the start of 3L year, so even the top students tend to work hard until they have a clerkship in hand.

  33. Posted by guest | October 3, 2011 at 4:45 PM

    This is why important elections should be decided by the mean vote instead of the median.
    – another former Lehman quant

  34. Posted by Guest | October 3, 2011 at 4:45 PM

    the literary reference will never overcome the "Me and the boys" comment.

  35. Posted by caveat bettor | October 3, 2011 at 4:58 PM

    No. But their comp has halved in the last few decades. Not sure all of it can be explained by managed health care. Other costs in the sector are hyperinflationary, as any well subsidized industry's would be. So why are the doctors getting skinnier?

  36. Posted by Guest | October 3, 2011 at 5:06 PM

    Hi there Elie :P

  37. Posted by ACDC | October 3, 2011 at 5:34 PM

    True class warfare. Was 2008 better than 1998 or 1988? WTF.

  38. Posted by Mexi_Cant | October 3, 2011 at 7:14 PM

    I did say top law schools, aka Yale and Harvard.

  39. Posted by Jacob Moore | October 3, 2011 at 10:38 PM

    nope, the most prestigious job is janitor

    -michael clayton

  40. Posted by SloanIE | October 4, 2011 at 12:04 AM

    current masochist>>>

  41. Posted by Brevity | October 4, 2011 at 9:50 AM

    2007 called, it wants its outlook on corporate law hiring back

  42. Posted by dbdb | October 4, 2011 at 9:51 AM

    Do you work for Mr. Strunk or Mr. White?

  43. Posted by Jeff | October 4, 2011 at 12:08 PM

    If the employer want this information, they should demand a transcript and provide the school release form to get it from the students. Life/health insurance providers have been doing this for a long time to get around HIPAA for psychiatric and chemical treatment.

  44. Posted by jumbo | October 4, 2011 at 12:29 PM

    Stanford is arguably better than Harvard and UChicago and Columbia are in the conversation.

    Yale is the only "top law school"

    Obviously this article doesn't refer to top MBA programs – last I checked Wharton had more in common with MIT and Chicago than Harvard & Stanford

  45. Posted by asds | October 4, 2011 at 1:15 PM

    yeah, the finally cracked the code, game's over, everyone loses

  46. Posted by Einstein | October 4, 2011 at 3:20 PM

    Hey, fucktard!

  47. Posted by Technicus | October 4, 2011 at 3:44 PM

    And that's why discovery =/= invention.

  48. Posted by WhartonIsOk | October 4, 2011 at 9:16 PM

    This study is fine for what it is, but nondisclosure doesn't mean business school students are incapable of being effective managers in their fields with or without studying hard. Per a Stanford study, the biggest predictor of success is your level of extroversion, not your GPA.

  49. Posted by LRA | October 5, 2011 at 12:09 AM

    As a current student at this institution, grade disclosure or not, there is no shortage of work assigned. Even if you are gunning for that coveted 11th percentile spot, the number of type-As raising that stupid bar/throwing the curve makes the window for just-getting-by almost impossible to price. Moreover, the sheer volume of work makes it impossible to fully prepare for every class. Seriously. I don't think I've ever worked so hard, and I'm coming from a year in a joint degree program at another grad school/typical pre-MBA working hours beforehand.

  50. Posted by Puzzled. Puzzled. | October 5, 2011 at 2:19 PM

    Rats you out to whom? I don't get how this works. Maybe the school won't release a grade transcript? So, everyone can claim a 4.0, right?

  51. Posted by caroljm36 | October 5, 2011 at 5:30 PM

    "courses waved by students"

    Waved? Waved at? Waved bye-bye to?

  52. Posted by Please.... | October 6, 2011 at 3:27 AM

    I already have my CFA.

    As a current student at this institution, I can easily say the CFA is a JOKE next to the rigor of this program, which thankfully doesn't need grade disclosure to remain such impressive program, the number #1 ranked MBA in the world (FT). Yes, the CFA is curved, too, as are the classes at Wharton. So imagine, for a second, that they took the top 10% of the people (ie, similar to the admittance rate at Wharton) that took the CFA exams (use Level II if you must….and I'll even "excuse" some of the more common traits (ex. social awkwardness) that would preclude many of those 10% CFA-ers from passing the MBA interview process or demonstrating any prior genuine leadership experience). THEN curve the test results for that top 10%….and do that for every class…..mindful that you have to take 4-5 of these CFA "classes" rather than just the one test…and you still want to get involved in professional, athletic, and social clubs….and you want to recruit, and you might want to compete in other things, or start a business, etc.

    Ie, imagine for yourself a world with seemingly endless opportunities at your disposal in which you have to decide an appropriate level of attention to school, compared to studying for several months for a three-hour exam.

    I still proudly hang my CFA charter on my wall because it was damn tough. But I'd sooner use it as toilet paper than make a single negative remark about my Wharton diploma.

    Your ranking is completely bogus.

  53. Posted by wharton 13 | October 10, 2011 at 10:05 PM

    love it.

  54. Posted by guest | December 1, 2011 at 3:57 AM

    Dude- I went to grad school for engineering. We had classes like uh, computational fluid dynamics, stochastic optimization and reactor design.

    You presumably aced classes like lessons in leadership, managing people and resolving interpersonal conflicts at the office.

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